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Physiological functions and effects of oil and fatty acids o

Time: 2015-07-20  Source:未知  Click:138

Edible oils are composed of fatty acid and glycerol, and different varieties of edible oils are mainly reflected in their fatty acid composition. From the nutritional point of view, the physiological function of oil to the human body is mainly reflected by different fatty acids.

1 saturated fatty acids (SFA)

The effect of different types of saturated fatty acids on blood lipids was not the same.

Increased serum concentrations of LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol levels for the most obvious role. Secondly, lauric acid, myristic acid, currently has lauric acid, myristic acid and palmitic acid three fatty acid included elevated serum cholesterol or LDL cholesterol levels list and stearic acid on elevated serum cholesterol or LDL cholesterol is not obvious.

2 mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)

Monounsaturated fatty acid (also known as Omega-9) usually refers to the oleic acid, the human intake of foods rich in unsaturated fatty acid in the oil will reduce the high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and the mono unsaturated fatty acids will only reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol to stay. Rich in mono unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils, such as olive oil, camellia seed oil, etc..

3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)

Polyunsaturated fatty acids are fatty acids containing 2 or more double bonds of 2 or more. General natural fatty acid double bond is in the form of cis. More unsaturated fatty acids can be divided into -6 and -3 type, and the type of polyunsaturated fatty acids can be classified by its structure.

4 essential fatty acids

The growth and health of human essential but not its synthesis of fatty acids are called essential fatty acid, mainly refers to the linoleic acid and linolenic acid. They can participate in the synthesis of phospholipids in human, and in phospholipids mitochondria and cell membrane as an important part, promote the metabolism of cholesterol and lipid class, synthetic precursors to prostate, is conducive to sperm formation, protect the skin to avoid damage caused by X-ray etc..

5 linoleic acid

Linoleic acid is a very wide distribution of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The main physiological function of the linoleic acid is: as some physiological regulating substances such as prostaglandins) precursors; linoleic acid can esterification of cholesterol, thereby reducing cholesterol levels in serum and liver, on diabetes prevention role; linoleic acid can inhibit the formation of thrombus in the arteries, which can prevent the occurrence of myocardial infarction; linoleic acid for the maintenance of cellular membrane function also plays a important role.

6 flax acid

Linolenic acid is divided into alpha linolenic acid and gamma linolenic acid, alpha linolenic acid and its metabolites with function of reducing blood fat, lowering blood pressure, inhibit platelet aggregation, reduce thrombosis etc., have broad prospects for development in the fields of medicine and health products. Gamma linolenic acid on serum triglyceride lowering effect, is currently reported lower high blood lipid is Jiahe safety the highest, to reduce serum cholesterol effect is also very good.

7 type -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

Such as linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, which linoleic acid is synthesized by plants, and through the food supply of the human body, it is necessary to maintain human health, so called "essential fatty acids. As long as the supply of sufficient quantities of linoleic acid, the human body will be able to synthesize other -6 type fatty acids required by the human body.

8 type -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

Including - - - - - - - - - - - - - acid, five carbon twenty acid (EPA) and twenty-two carbon six acid (DHA), etc.. The alpha linolenic acid is can not be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from the food, so alpha linolenic acid is human "essential fatty acid", is important in brain and retina, skin and kidney function of the sound. Body by consuming some marine fish, shellfish and algae provide EPA and DHA, can also through alpha linolenic acid metabolism of EPA and DHA derived.

Coordination of fatty acids and fatty acids in the fatty acids and the fatty acids of the -3 system in the 9 oils -6

In general, the content of fatty acids in the fatty acid in the edible oil is higher than that in the -6 system, and the fatty acid content of the -3 system is less. The study showed that the excess of the -6 had a certain relationship with the increase of blood viscosity and other modern diseases. It should pay attention to the proportion of two essential fatty acids. In essential fatty acids, the negative effect of -6 on the fatty acids of the -6 system was inhibited by 1: 6. At present, experts and scholars believe that people's intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the -3: -6 about 1: 4 more appropriate.

Table 2 -3, -6 and -9 fatty acids in common vegetable oils.

Serial number

Oil name

ω-3Fatty acid

ω-6Fatty acid

ω-9Fatty acid


Soybean oil





Canola oil





Peanut oil





Cottonseed oil





Sunflower oil





Camellia seed oil





Flax seed oil





Rice bran oil





Corn oil





Walnut oil





Sesame oil





Safflower seed oil





Palm oil





Olive oil




10 common edible oil classification
(1) saturated fatty acids
Butter, suet, lard, palm oil and coconut oil.
(2) w-9 series fatty acid type (single unsaturated)
Olive oil, camellia oil, ordinary Rapeseed Oil etc..
(3) fatty acid type w-6
Safflower seed oil, sunflower seed oil, corn oil, etc..
(4) fatty acid type W-3
Flax seed oil, deep sea fish oil, etc..
Part of the oil in the role of the part of the
Edible oil with main phospholipids, sterols, tocopherols, and these substances with strong physiological activity and the health care function.
(1) phospholipid
Phospholipid is an important part of life and all living cells, but also the main component of nerve tissue, especially the brain spinal cord. Human brain, marrow dry matter in 40% are composed of phospholipids, the main component of it is blood cells and other cell membrane materials and phospholipids in normal blood accounted for 25% of the total lipid content, it on the human body's normal activities and metabolism plays a important role.
(2) the
Sterol cannot be synthesized by the human body, must through the ingestion of food, it can hinder the cholesterol absorption, effectively reduce the serum cholesterol levels and a significant effect to improve the body's antioxidant, play a role in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and coronary heart disease.
(3) vitamin E
Vitamin E is a material which has many kinds of physiological activity, is the essential nutrients, on the human body antioxidation and preventing brain function decline (cerebral atrophy) has a good effect, can protect liver cells from damage by toxic chemicals, also has anti hemolysis, inhibit platelet aggregation, prevent thrombosis.

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